This section will
focus on Young People and Alcohol – Adults will be covered
JSNA Recommendations (2014) - Progress to
Following prioritisation by the
multidisciplinary Bedford Borough Alcohol Steering Group, the
following actions were agreed as priorities:
To reduce alcohol related harm amongst children and young
- Complete a young people’s drug and
alcohol services health needs assessment
- Ensure frontline workers are able to
signpost young people who are misusing alcohol for specialist
- Develop a better understanding of
young people’s drinking behaviours
- Ensure teachers are informed
about alcohol issues and pathways for support
Progress against actions:
- A substance misuse health needs
assessment was completed in October 2013.
- Following the health needs
assessment the children and young people’s drug and alcohol service
(CAN YP) has been re commissioned with more emphasis on Tier 1
Early Intervention and Prevention work.
- Information has been developed
and distributed to schools, children centres and other young
people’s organisations which outlines where and how to report
intelligence relating to proxy purchasing.
- Sensible drinking messages are
included in the Aspire Magazine for local teachers and teaching
staff, and the June edition was dedicated to alcohol.
- Delivered Identification and Brief
Advice (IBA) training to a range of frontline workers supporting
vulnerable children and young people.
- Secured funding for the part time
Children’s Worker post to continue until March 2015. The post works
with children and young people affected by parental alcohol
- Implement a school alcohol survey in
January 2015 to better understand the drinking behaviours of young
people and provide baseline information.
- Work with partner agencies to gather
more robust data in relation to alcohol and children and young
people, particularly alcohol related hospital attendances and
- Develop and implement relevant
actions that are identified through the Drugs and Alcohol Solutions
Nationally, the number of children and young
people aged 11–15 years who drink alcohol has fallen. In
2010, 13% of children surveyed aged 11-15 years in England drank
alcohol in the last week which is the lowest level recorded since a
peak of 27% in 1996. The proportion of pupils in this age
group who have never drunk alcohol has risen in recent years, from
39% in 2003 to 55% in 2010 (Harker, 2012).
Alcohol misuse can be linked to a range of
behaviours that may put a young person at risk of unsafe sex,
violence and other criminal behaviours for example. In a
survey of nearly 10,000 young drinkers aged 15-16 years (undertaken
in North West England), 28% reported that they had experienced
violence when drunk, 13% had regretted alcohol-related sex and 45%
had forgotten things after drinking (NICE, 2012).
In 2009, the Chief Medical Officer issued
guidance on alcohol consumption in children and young people
advising that an alcohol-free childhood is the healthiest and best
option. There are immediate health risks such as memory loss, risky
behaviours, vomiting and alcohol poisoning. The recommendations
- Not drinking alcohol until the young person
is at least 15 years.
- When consuming alcohol, 15 to 17 year olds
should be in a supervised environment.
- 15 to 17 year olds should not consume alcohol
on more than one day a week.
Evidence shows that young people who start
drinking at an early age drink more, and more frequently, than
those who delay their first alcoholic drink.
Under UK law, children and young people can
consume different types of alcohol in different contexts, depending
on their age: young people aged 16 or 17 may consume alcohol with a
meal when under adult supervision on licensed premises (NICE,
Alcohol consumed by young people is
increasingly likely to be obtained from the home (Hughes,
2008). School aged children are more likely to be given
alcohol than to buy it and most commonly by family or
friends. In 2010, 26% of children surveyed aged 11-15 years
who drank, were most likely to buy alcohol from friends or
relatives; 16% bought it from someone else, 16% bought it from an
off-licence and 12% bought it from a shop or supermarket (Harker,
One or more of the following factors are
common among children and young people who use alcohol:
- Drug or alcohol misuse by parents or older
- Family conflict or poor and inconsistent
- Poor school attendance and poor educational
- Pre-existing behavioural problems.
- Living with a single or step-parent, being
looked after or homeless.(NICE, 2007)
Alcohol and Parental
Parents and family play the most important
role in children and young people understanding of alcohol as
research suggests that drinking behaviour is influenced by the
attitudes and behaviour of families. Children growing up in
families where parents are dependent on drugs or alcohol are seven
times more likely to become addicted adults (LGA, 2013).
Young people are less likely to drink if their parents disapprove
and more likely to drink if this is tolerated by their parents.
The misuse of alcohol by parents negatively
affects the lives and harms the wellbeing of more children than
does the misuse of illegal drugs. Yet too often, parental alcohol
misuse is not taken as seriously, in spite of alcohol being
addictive, easier to obtain, and legal. The effects of parents’
alcohol misuse on children may be hidden for years, whilst children
try both to cope with the impact on them and manage the
consequences for their families. The number of children who are
affected by/living with parental alcohol misuse is largely unknown.
However, estimates suggest parental alcohol misuse is far more
prevalent than parental drug misuse and there is a need for greater
emphasis on parental alcohol misuse as distinct from other
It often takes a number of years before
families affected by alcohol misuse seek support – mainly due to
not recognising the alcohol problem in the first place. Given the
widespread acceptance of a heavy drinking culture, confusion exists
as to what amounts to a drinking problem. Evidence indicates
alcohol problems tend to develop slowly over a long period of
Different levels of consumption (not just
parents who are dependent drinker) and particular styles of
drinking (such as binge drinking) may affect children and it cannot
be assumed that higher levels of consumption equated to greater
consumption. Also children living with parental alcohol misuse come
to the attention of services later than children living with
parental drug misuse.
A high proportion of young people in drug and
alcohol services have other issues in their lives, including
problems at school, experiences of poverty and marginalisation and
lack of access to training and employment.
Young People Who Have
The link between substance misuse and
offending behaviour is long established. Young people in the youth
justice system have a high prevalence of substance misuse needs,
even in comparison to other groups of vulnerable young people.
In many cases young people offend in order to
fund their drug and alcohol use or they offend under the influence
of drug and alcohol.
Children who are Looked After and Care
There were a total of 1,900 looked after
children in England who were identified as having a substance
misuse problem during April 2011 to March 2012.
Young people aged 16-17 years are a group
which are affected by homelessness, they are defined as a ‘priority
need group.’ There is a well-established link between housing
problems and substance misuse.
Many young people who misuse drugs and alcohol
have multiple and co-occurring mental health problems. There is a
correlation between substance misuse and self-harming
A summary of key findings regarding the links
between young people and risky behaviours include:
- Young people are more likely to have
risky sex under the influence of alcohol.
- Young people are more likely to
have sex at a younger age.
- Alcohol consumption is associated
with teenage pregnancy.
- Alcohol is the main reason for
- Alcohol is a contributing factor
for first sex and not using contraception.
A summary of key findings regarding the links
between young people, alcohol and risky behaviours include:-
- Young people are more likely to
have risky sex under the influence of alcohol
- Alcohol consumption is associated
with teenage pregnancy
- Alcohol is the main reason for
- Alcohol is a contributing factor
for first sex and not using contraception
- Young people are more likely
to have sex at a younger age
What do we know?
Key facts, figures, trends
In 2011/12 there were approximately 20 alcohol
specific hospital admissions for young people aged under 18 years
in Bedford Borough. Alcohol specific conditions are those
wholly related to alcohol e.g. alcoholic liver disease or alcohol
overdose. During April to September 2012 there were 11
admissions, a decrease of 6 compared with the same period in 2011
(see graph 1).
Young people aged under 18 admitted to
hospital with alcohol specific conditions (rate per 100,000
population aged 0-17 years)
In comparison with the 2005/06- 2007/08
period, the rate of young people under 18 who are admitted to
hospital because they have a condition wholly related to alcohol
such as alcohol overdose is similar in the 2010/11-2012/13 period.
The admission rate in the 2010/11-2012/13 period is similar to the
Data Source: Public Health England (PHE)
Source: PHIU, 2012
*This data has been calculated using the total
number of admissions occurring in an entire population and has not
been adjusted to remove the effect of variables such as age or
Bedford Borough Commercial Regulation
Team continues to provide intelligence-led response that is
tailored to meet the needs of businesses and the communities. The
priority outcomes ensure compliance and thereby reduce the supply
of alcohol to those under age in Bedford Borough. Commercial
Regulation will, where need is identified or assistance requested,
continue to work with off and on licensed premises to reduce sales
of alcohol to young people. This is done by providing the support
to help licensees train staff in order to facilitate
Alcohol - Off
Alcohol - On
In 2013/2014, 24 test purchases (TPs) were
made at Off Licence and On Licence in Bedford Borough where
intelligence suggested there was a likelihood of illegal sales of
alcohol. Only two failures occurred and these were dealt with by
way of warning letter, follow up advisory visits and re test
purchases. No premises failed twice. Additionally 10 people from
businesses within the Borough attended a Trading Standards
Institute accredited training session delivered by Borough Council
Trading Standards Officers.
Challenge 25 is a retailing strategy that
encourages anyone who is over 18 but looks under 25 to carry
acceptable ID if they wish to buy alcohol. Introduced as Challenge
21 in 2006, Challenge 25 rolled out in the off trade in 2009.
Challenge 25 is not simply an ID scheme; there
are several additional components that go into making the scheme
effective by looking to raising the overall standards of those who
These components include:
- Staff support
- Keeping records
- Clarity on acceptable ID
It is estimated that 850,000 people
are trained in the application of Challenge 25 every year and
around 11million people have been challenged through Challenge 25
and similar schemes.
National and Local Strategies (current best practice)
Current Activity and
CAN YP is a young person’s drug and alcohol
treatment service covering Bedford Borough and Central
Bedfordshire. CAN YP is part of the CAN partnership a drug, alcohol
and homeless charity which has services across Bedfordshire and
CAN YP focus on the provision of information,
education, advice and guidance on reducing harm and risk associated
with substance misuse. The team consists of a service manager, an
administrator, drug and alcohol workers, a specialist nurse
practitioner, a counsellor and 2 children’s workers who offer
therapeutic play sessions for children aged between 5-13 who have
been or are affected by someone else’s drug or alcohol misuse.
CAN YP work with young people aged
5-18 who are affected either by their own or another’s drug and/or
alcohol issues. Their sources of referrals come from social care,
looked after children, CAMH, health, universal education, hostels,
police and youth offending service
Although alcohol is the most commonly used substance, it is the
second most commonly cited problem substance for those young people
entering treatment in Bedford Borough. The most commonly used
substance at referral to CAN YP is cannabis. This could be for a
number of reasons:
- Professionals and young
people not recognising that they can refer to CAN YP for alcohol
support – there is a view that CAN YP is a drug agency.
- Professionals and young
people often regarding excessive alcohol intake as ‘normal
behaviour’ and it is only when the alcohol intake becomes
problematic or a drugs issue is identified, that concerns are
The Community Alcohol Liaison Service (CALS)
provides in-reach support and assessment within Bedford Hospital
Acute Trust. There is a care pathway for adults aged over 18
years who attend hospital in relation to an alcohol problem.
If a young person is referred to the CALS they will be
automatically signposted to Plan B however to date, the CALS
service has received no referrals for young people. Alcohol
Concern recommends that alcohol related attendances at emergency
Accident and Emergency should always result in the opportunity to
access harm reduction programme/support.
Schools Health Education Unit -
Substance Misuse School Awareness Study 2012
A total of 2,654 students in 21 schools across
Bedford Borough and Central Bedfordshire took part in the 2012
Substance Misuse School Awareness Study carried out by the Schools
Health Education Unit – 11 of the schools were in Bedford
Borough. Participating students were all from years 8 and 10
i.e. aged 12/13 years and 14/15 years. Reports summarising
the results of the study are expected by the end of March 2013.
25% of secondary aged pupils said that they
have had an alcoholic drink in the last week. This figure increased
with age; 18% of year 8 pupils said that they had drunk alcohol
compared with 35% of year 10 pupils.
Comparisons between the Bedford Borough survey
and the wider SHEU reference sample
- 36% of pupils said they
‘never’ drink alcohol compared with 50% of pupils in the wider
- 10% of pupils said that if
they drink alcohol, their parents/carers ‘never’ or only
‘sometimes’ know about this. This compared with 8% of the wider
- 9% of pupils drank beer or
lager in the previous 7 days. This compared with 6% of pupils in
the wider sample. 6% of pupils drank wine compared with 3% of
pupils in the wider sample. 7% of pupils drank alcopops compared
with 4% of the wider sample.
- 7% of year 10 pupils bought
alcohol from an off-licence in the last week. 3% of year 10 pupils
said they bought it in a supermarket. 1% of year 8 pupils said they
bought alcohol from an off-licence in the last week.
Health and Well Being Survey
Four maintained Upper schools in Bedford
Borough took part in the Health and Well-being survey during the
autumn term of 2012 with the majority of students being in years 9
and 10. A total of 1187 pupils took part. The survey was
offered to Academies at a cost but none participated. Results
were published in March 2013 with schools receiving an overall
report and individual school report.
Answers are based on attitudes and perceptions
of peers towards alcohol and other drugs.
- 17% thought that ‘drinking is never a
good thing at any age’.
- 43% thought ‘Drinking at my
age is OK as long as it doesn’t affect school work and other
- The perception of peer’s
attitudes to the previous statement was 35%.
In response to the question ‘Have you ever
done the following and if so how recently?’
- 42% had never drank
In response to perceptions of their peers
attitude to the same question results were as follows.
- 15% had never drank
In general, students perceived that more of
their peers engage in risky behaviours than is actually the case –
this is backed up by US and UK research.
The next Alcohol Survey with all schools in
Bedford Borough will take place in January 2015.
Children and Young People’s Drug and
Alcohol Health Needs Assessment 2013
Public Health completed a Health Needs
Assessment in 2013 for children and young people’s drug and alcohol
services. As part of this process two consultation workshops
were held for local stakeholders. The workshops were attended
by representatives from a range of local statutory and voluntary
agencies. A brief questionnaire was circulated to
professionals who were not able to attend and responses were
received from a number of services including MIND, the SEPT School
Nursing team and the Education and Inclusion Support Team.
The focus of the discussions and
questionnaires essentially related to the substance misuse needs of
young people i.e. what is working well in respect to alcohol and
drug treatment and what improvements could be made in the future
commissioning of services / support.
- Raise the profile of local
provider and ensure stakeholders are aware that the service also
supports young people misusing alcohol.
- Ensure substance misuse education
is/continues to be delivered in schools.
- Ensure frontline professionals,
particularly those working with the most vulnerable young people,
are aware of relevant support services and how to refer / signpost
- Take a whole family approach when
addressing substance misuse issues.
- Ensure young people are able to access
support for any mental health issues as this may be the source of
their substance misuse.
Engagement and Development –
Consultation with Young People
During July and August 2013, children and
young people, through various methods and groups, contributed their
views towards the Public Health consultation. The young
people taking part included:
- 29 children and
young people aged 9 to 19 years
- 5 young people
- 4 young people in
- 8 young people
supported by social services “at risk” teams
- 11 young people
from BME backgrounds
Where do you access information from?
- Police, friends, internet, Google, looked on
website, Facebook, adverts, emails, mum, dad, carers, shops, street
- They all knew not to ask strangers.
- 1 person admitted they were on Facebook and
that they were 12yrs old.
- They all knew that they should be 13+ to be
on the site and they all had received the e-safety talk at
- From the computer
When asked how they would tell people about a
service, they said…
- Talk to them face to face
- Speak to them in an assembly – you could
target a group but the bad thing about assembly was that you can
feel embarrassed if they ask you to come up at the end for
- Write a sign
- Via a newsletter and give it out to
- Through a TV advert
- If you get help from a service you can tell
others at school but not your own school (like peer mentors) –
although one person remarked that if it was at their own school it
would be embarrassing and they would “chant” her name
- Via a free text number
When asked where they would go if they needed
advice on drugs and alcohol for different people, they said:
1. If you were
worried about your family?
- Dad, brother, I would tell them to stop; speak to the NSPCC,
maybe the Police, rehab, GP; I’d be scared if they were using
drugs; boyfriend / girlfriend; Childline; other family; my carer /
social worker; other people’s parents; phone support; online
2. If you were
worried about your friends?
- Mum; teacher; speak to friend involved; a health worker; maybe
the Police; Plan B now I know they are there; an adult; their
parents; their teachers; counsellor
3. If you were
worried about drugs and alcohol in general?
- Police; teacher; head teacher; their own family; I would never
do drugs; someone in school; ‘Talk to Frank’; telephone helplines;
4. If you were
worried in the summer holidays?
- Mum; another friend; other parents
Groups were also asked to think about the
frequency of who they would go to. Different groups created
different options. Core options included – Google, Twitter,
Facebook, group work, friends and text.
The 2012 Government‘s
Alcohol Strategy sets out proposals to clampdown on the
'binge drinking' culture; reduce alcohol fuelled violence and
disorder and reduce the number of people drinking to damaging
levels. The strategy includes commitments to:
- Introduce a minimum unit price for alcohol
which will target the cheapest products and help reduce drinking in
those who drink the most
- Consult on a ban on the sale of multi-buy
- Introduce stronger powers for local areas to
control the density of licensed premises, including making the
impact on health a consideration for this
- Pilot innovative sobriety schemes to
challenge alcohol-related offending
The government has already legislated for a
wide set of reforms to tackle binge drinking and the effect it has
on individuals and communities, however additional work is required
to tackle drink-fuelled, antisocial behaviour and crime. In
light of this, a national alcohol strategy consultation is
currently taking place, seeking views on five key areas:
- A ban on multi-buy promotions in shops and
off-licences to reduce excessive alcohol consumption
- A review of the mandatory licensing
conditions, to ensure that they are sufficiently targeting problems
such as irresponsible promotions in pubs and clubs
- Health as a new alcohol licensing objective
for cumulative impacts so that licensing authorities can consider
alcohol-related health harms when managing the problems relating to
the number of premises in their area
- Cutting red tape for responsible businesses
to reduce the burden of regulation while maintaining the integrity
of the licensing system
- Minimum unit pricing, ensuring for the first
time that alcohol can only be sold at a sensible and appropriate
(Home Office, 2012)
In the event that new policy is
released as a result of this consultation local action plans will
be updated accordingly.
The new Public Health
Responsibility Deal collective pledge (Home Office, 2012),
which was announced in conjunction with the Government’s Alcohol
Strategy, is to take one billion units of alcohol out of the market
by 2015. This will be achieved through improving the choice
available of lower strength products. Companies have
committed to helping their customers to drink within the guidelines
by improving consumer choice by lowering the strength of existing
brands, introducing new lower strength products and encouraging
their customers to switch to lower unit drinks rather than similar
drinks with a higher unit content.
Estimates suggest that in a decade, removing
one billion units from sales would result in almost 1,000 fewer
alcohol related deaths per year; thousands of fewer hospital
admissions and alcohol related crimes, as well as substantial
savings to health services and crime costs each year (Home Office,
National outcomes, as identified in the
Government’s Alcohol Strategy, include:
- Changes in attitudes so that
people think it is not acceptable to drink in ways that could cause
harm to themselves or others
- Reduction in the amount of
alcohol-fuelled crime, especially violent crime
- Reduction in the number of
adults drinking above the NHS guidelines
- Reduction in the number of
people binge drinking
- Reduction in the number of
alcohol related deaths
- Sustained reduction in both
the numbers of 11-15 year olds drinking alcohol and the amounts
In October 2012, a local
government public health briefing paper was published
which summarises NICE (National Institute for Health and
Clinical Excellence) recommendations for local authorities
and their partner organisations, on how to reduce the harm caused
by alcohol. It suggests that local authorities:
- Can influence where and when
alcohol is consumed or sold
- Can enforce laws on underage
- Have an important role in
ensuring licensed premises operate responsibly and collaborate to
reduce alcohol related harm
- Have a role in promoting and
advising people about sensible drinking
- Have responsibility for
commissioning alcohol prevention and specialist
- Have responsibility for
health checks which, from April 2013, will include an assessment of
how much alcohol someone drinks.
Alcohol Education in
NICE recommendations for schools include the
- Alcohol education should be an integral
part of the school curriculum and should be tailored for different
age groups and different learning needs.
- A 'whole school' approach should be
adopted, covering everything from policy development and the school
environment to staff training and parents and pupils should be
involved in developing and supporting this.
- Where appropriate, children and young
people who are thought to be drinking harmful amounts should be
offered one-to-one advice or should be referred to an external
- Schools should work with a range of
local partners to support alcohol education in schools, ensure
school interventions are integrated with community activities and
to find ways to consult with families about initiatives to reduce
What are the key inequalities?
Alcohol is strongly linked to health
inequalities. It has an inverse social gradient which means
that consumption increases as income rises; the proportion of
people exceeding the sensible drinking guidelines also rises in
line with income.
Children from higher income households in
England appear to be at greater risk of some types of adolescent
alcohol problems and these risks appear different in girls compared
to boys. Childhood social advantage may not generally be
associated with healthier behaviour in adolescence (Melotti et al,
Research exploring risk, protective factors
and resilience to substance (including alcohol) misuse, indicates
that some young people are particularly vulnerable including
frequent truants; young people excluded from school, young
offenders, looked after children and care leavers. (Home Office,
2007; NHS Information Centre, 2008).
Among men and women aged 16-64 years, those in
professional and managerial households are most likely to have
drunk alcohol in the previous week; those in semi-routine and
routine occupations are the least likely. This is also true
in the proportions drinking on 5 days or more in the previous
week. Similarly, those working are more likely to drink and
binge drink than those who are unemployed and economically inactive
However, while people with lower socioeconomic
status are more likely to abstain altogether, if they do consume
alcohol they are likely to suffer greater harm from drinking than
those from higher socioeconomic groups. They are more likely
- Have problematic drinking patterns and
- Die, in part, as a result of alcohol
- Die of an alcohol specific cause
- Be admitted to hospital due to an alcohol use
There is additional evidence to suggest that
the following groups may be at higher risk of alcohol misuse:
- Lesbian, gay and bisexual people – a number
of small studies in the UK suggest that there are higher levels of
alcohol misuse among this group of people (BMA, 2008).
- Transgender people – the Department of Health
(2007) recognises that the experiences of transgender people,
particularly the younger population, can place them at risk of
alcohol abuse, as well as depression, self-harm and substance
- Short term prisoners – Brooker et al (2009)
found that 44.4% of short term prisoners were at risk of alcohol
abuse; this is five times greater than the percentage of people
misusing alcohol within the general population.
- Minority ethnic groups – particularly young
people belonging to minority ethnic groups with strong religious
ties that forbid drinking, or are less tolerant of drinking among
women, may hide their drinking for fear of repercussions and
bringing shame on their families. This is evident among some
young people belonging to Muslim, Sikh and Hindu religions
(Hurcombe et al, 2010).
- People with mental health issues.
Ethnicity and Alcohol
Most minority ethnic groups have higher rates
of abstinence, and lower levels of frequent and heavy drinking
compared to the British population as a whole, and to people from
white backgrounds. However over time, generational
differences may emerge and there is some research to show that
patterns of drinking in second generation minority ethnic groups
may start to resemble the drinking habits of the general
Drinking patterns vary both between and within
minority ethnic groups. For example:
- Abstinence is high amongst South Asians,
particularly those from Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Muslim
backgrounds. However Pakistani and Muslim men who do drink,
do so more heavily than other non-white minority ethnic and
- People from mixed ethnic backgrounds are less
likely to abstain and more likely to drink heavily compared to
other non-white minority ethnic groups.
- People from Indian, Chinese, Irish and
Pakistani backgrounds on higher incomes tend to drink above
- Frequent and heavy drinking has increased for
Indian women and Chinese men.
- Drinking among Sikh girls has increased,
whilst second generation Sikh men drink less than first
The reasons for these variations in drinking
patterns amongst minority ethnic groups are varied. Although
patterns among some first generation minority ethnic groups
resemble those from their country of origin, stress associated with
migration among first generations has also been linked with
increases in drinking, particularly among white ethnic
groups. The experiences of moving to a new country can be
affected by a number of factors including access to education and
employment, changes to socio-economic status and peer influences
and lifestyle choices.
In general, studies suggest that abstinence
and low levels of drinking among non-white ethnic groups are
associated with a strong ethnic identify, strong family and local
community ties, continuing links with the host country and
maintaining religious beliefs.
Hurcombe et al, 2010
What are the unmet needs/gaps?
- Lack of awareness amongst
stakeholders that local young people’s service also supports young
people misusing alcohol.
- Limited prevention/ early intervention work
in schools around alcohol.
- Frontline professionals (particularly those
working with the most vulnerable young people) should receive
relevant training around local support services and how to refer /
signpost to them. As well as training around identifying
alcohol issues in young people.
- A whole family approach should be taken when
addressing alcohol issues.
- Limited access to services for young people experiencing
mental health issues
- Ensure young people drinking
at increasing or higher risk levels are identified early
- Take a whole family approach
when addressing alcohol misuse.
- Ensure young people who are
affected by their parent/carers drug and alcohol misuse are
identified early and engaged with.
- Ensure messages are
relevant and consistent.
- Professionals with a
safeguarding responsibility for children and young people aged
10-15 years who are thought to be at risk of drinking alcohol*
should determine an appropriate course of action.
- Deliver young people’s IBA
training to develop staff competencies in the identification of
- Ensure alcohol
education programmes complement the Personal, Social, Health,
Education (PSHE) provided in schools and other education
- Ensure education is
tailored for different age groups and takes different learning
needs into account.
- Increase awareness of how
the media, advertisements, role models and the views of parents,
peers and society can influence alcohol consumption.
- Find ways to consult with
families (parents, carers, children and young people) about
initiatives to reduce alcohol use and involve them in commissioning
decisions, the design of health services and campaigns.
*Young offenders, children who are looked
after, young people not in education, employment or training
(NEET), excluded young people and care leavers. (NICE Public Health
briefing paper for local authorities, 2012).
This chapter links to the following chapters in the JSNA:
DeMartini, K, Palmer, R, Leeman, R, Corbin, W, Toll, B, Fucito,
L, & O'Malley, S 2012, 'Drinking Less and Drinking Smarter:
Direct and Indirect Protective Strategies in Young Adults' in
journal Psychology Of Addictive Behaviours, pp 1-12
Department of Health (2007)
Tackling health inequalities: 2007 status report on the Programme
of Action. London: The Department.
Department of Health. &
National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse (2012)
Statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System –
Statistics relating to young people England, 1 April 2011 – 31
March 2012. Manchester: National Drug Evidence Centre.
Harker, R. (2012)
Statistics on Alcohol. London: House of Commons
HM Government (2012) The
Government’s Alcohol Strategy. London: The Stationery
Hughes, K. et al (2006) Youth
violence and alcohol in North West Public Health Observatory.
(2012) Protecting people Promoting health – A public health
approach to violence prevention for England. Liverpool: The
Centre for Public Health.
Hurcombe, R, et al (2010)
Ethnicity and alcohol: a review of the UK literature.
York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Institute of Alcohol Studies
(2010) Adolescents and Alcohol – IAS Factsheet. Cambridge:
James, C (2011) Drug
prevention programmes in schools: What is the evidence?
London: Mentor – The Drug and Alcohol Protection Charity.
LAPE (2012) Local
Authority Profiles. Available at: http://www.lape.org.uk/
Local Government Association
(2013) Tackling drugs and alcohol. London: Local
Marmot, M. (2010) Marmot
Review – Fair Society, Healthy Lives: A Strategic review of Health
Inequalities in England. Available at
Melotti, R. Lewis, G.,
Hickman, M., Heron, J., Araya, R. and Macleod, J. (2012) ‘Early
life socioeconomic position and later alcohol use: birth cohort
study’ in journal Addiction
National Institute for Health
and Clinical Excellence (2007) School –based interventions on
alcohol. Available at
(Accessed: November 2012)
National Institute for Health
and Clinical Excellence (2012) Local government public health
briefings – Alcohol. Available at
http://publications.nice.org.uk/phb6 (Accessed: 31 October
Schools Health Education Unit
(2012) Supporting the health of Young People in Bedford
Borough Exeter: SHEU
Back to top
To download a PDF version of this chapter, please click